I found the following to be very enlightening. Although similar research articles have been published over the last two decades the level of detail is increasing. The evidence still indicates that humans are incredibly similar and that “race” and ethnicity are mostly social constructs. The person who persecutes someone because they are “Jewish” may very well be persecuting someone whose genetic code is actually more indicative of someone whose ancestors hail from Europe or Central Asia.
“Behar believed that among Ashkenazi Jews, R1a1 was essentially restricted to Levites. However, we know from subsequent research that R1a1 comprises nearly 12% of Ashkenazi results, while the Levites only make up about 4-5 % of the Jewish people (Nebel et al. 2005). Thus, these results extend well beyond the Levite priestly class to approximately 5-8% of the Cohanim and Israelites (the non-priestly Jewish population) as well.
Haplogroup R1a1 is relatively rare within Middle Eastern populations, but very common among Eastern European and Scandinavian populations (Behar et al. 2003). It is found at a frequency of 7% in some Near Eastern groups (Behar et al. 2004b). However, given that Sephardic groups did not share R1a1 frequencies with the Ashkenazim, it was apparent that Jewish R1a1 was probably not of ancient Israelite origin. “
“The presence of Haplogroup Q among all Ashkenazi groups indicates the founders of this group either mixed with a number of separate Ashkenazi populations or, more likely, entered to the Ashkenazi population in western Europe in a similar fashion to Haplogroup R1a1, before the Ashkenazi migrated in large numbers eastward in the 13th-14th centuries.”
“The frequency of Haplogroup Q among Scandinavians is comparable to that found in Ashkenazim (Faux, private correspondence). It appears that Norwegians/Shetlanders and Ashkenazi Jews possess the highest percentages of haplogroup Q of any populations in Europe – a rare link between two very different populations who may share a common ancestor from Central Asia or Eastern Europe. Interestingly, Scandinavians and Shetlanders also possess high levels of haplogroup R1a1 as well, perhaps some of it originating from Central Asian sources (Faux, private correspondence).”
“Patai’s ultimate conclusion regarding admixture is particularly intriguing given the lack of DNA data available when he wrote his book. He relied heavily on other genetic data, including blood groups, fingerprint patterns, and genetic diseases, to reach his conclusions. Despite these limitations, Patai (1989, p. 294) concluded that while Jewish populations retain evidence of their Mediterranean and Middle Eastern origins, they have clearly experienced extensive admixture with their European neighbors. He cites various authors, including Cavalli-Sforza and Carmelli, who estimate such admixture rates to be approximately 40% for Ashkenazi Jews.”
“But Jewish DNA presents a picture that is far more complex than just the Cohanim results. This picture is also far more diverse than what many genetic studies on Ashkenazi Jews would suggest. Instead, many of those studies have focused heavily on the Israelite DNA results, often downplaying the significant contribution of European and Khazarian ancestors. The examination of only a single component of Jewish ancestry has resulted in an incomplete and, to a certain extent, distorted presentation of the Jewish genetic picture.
Diversity was present from Jewish beginnings, when various Semitic and Mediterranean peoples came together to form the Israelites of long ago. The genetic picture was clearly enriched during the Diaspora, when Jews spread far and wide across Europe, attracting converts and intermarrying over time with their European hosts. The most recent DNA evidence indicates that from this blending of Middle Eastern and European ancestors, the diverse DNA ancestry of the Ashkenazi Jews emerged.
Although the debate over the fate of the Khazars is far from over, DNA research suggests that remnants of these mysterious people continue to exist within the genetic makeup of Ashkenazi Jews. In fact, the Levite results indicate that the Khazars became fully integrated into the Ashkenazi communities and came to play an important role within the Jewish priesthood.
The Cohanim results do not disprove the genetic contribution of the Khazars. Rather, the DNA studies indicate that Jews are not entirely Khazarian, Israelite or European in genetic makeup, but a complex and unique mixture of all these peoples.”